There are many forms of electric power generation using alternative energy. But that is inevitably popular with alternative energy such as installing solar cells. It uses solar thermal energy to help produce energy, but actually there are many forms of energy,
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for example, chemical energy, mechanical energy, etc. Therefore, we would like to present each type of energy as follows.
form of energy
1) Chemical energy Energy obtained from chemical reactions when substances from Types can react with new substances. along with giving out energy or must provide energy, such as chemical energy from a flashlight or battery
2) Thermal energy heat energy It is energy from high-temperature objects such as heat energy from the sun. geothermal energy or thermal energy from molten metal
3) Mechanical Energy Mechanical energy is a term that has a broader meaning than kinetic energy or potential energy. because mechanical energy It represents the total energy contained in the object.
4) Electrical energy Electrical energy refers to the energy caused by the movement of electric charges Electrical energy can easily be converted into other forms of energy.
If energy is classified by behavior Can be classified into 2 types:
1) Potential energy is energy generated when an object is placed in a movable position, such as water in a dam.
2) Kinetic energy is the energy that is in motion, such as water in a dam flowing through a pipe. a moving car, etc.
3) Accumulated energy is the energy stored in objects or objects such as chemical energy stored in food, coal, oil or firewood. Will be stored in the form of chemical composition or of the object or object and will be released when the object or object is transformed, such as the energy stored in fossil fuels. energy stored in firewood or charcoal, etc.
1.2 Power unit
In the standard international unit system (Standard International Unit, S1), energy is measured in joules, but the amount of electrical energy is not commonly used in joules. but commonly used units kilowatt-hour Where 1 unit of electrical energy (Unit) or 1 kilowatt-hour means turning on an electrical appliance with a power of 1000 watts for 1 hour (kilowatt-hour equals 8,000 kilojoules).
The amount of energy may also be used in other units. For example, energy may be measured in terms of the amount of fuel consumed, e.g. ton of coal equivalent, toc, ton of oil equivalent, toe. etc.
Since natural fuels such as natural gas, coal, and oil that have the same mass or weight when burned will produce different amounts of heat. Normally, to tell the amount of gas is measured in cubic feet. Coal is measured in tons. and oil is measured in barrels But the use of such units It is not possible to say which fuel produces more energy. And how much more or less? For example, country A has 100 million barrels of crude oil and 1000 million tons of coal while another country B has a dam that can produce 100 megawatts of electricity and 1000 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Ask which country has more reserves of energy. We probably can’t tell.
Therefore, if we want to compare energy from fuels or other energy sources, we need to convert those measurement units into the same form, the common unit of measurement. therefore can be compared The unit of measurement commonly used for energy comparisons is tons of crude oil equivalent and tons of coal equivalent
tons of oil equivalents, toe
Tonne of oil equivalent is a unit of measure for the amount of energy. which tells the amount of energy compared to the amount of energy obtained from burning 1 ton of crude oil on average, 1 ton of crude oil when burned will decompose to provide energy of about 41.868 GJ or 11.630 megawatt hours (MWh) equivalent tonne of crude oil It is commonly used as a central unit for comparing energy sources. And different physical characteristics such as coal, natural gas and energy generated from hydropower, etc. tons of crude oil equivalent are commonly used in energy-related fields
ton of coal equivalent, toc)
Tonne of coal is a unit of measure for energy. which tells the amount of energy compared to the amount of energy obtained from burning 1 ton of coal on average, 1 ton of coal when burned will decompose to give about 27 gigajoules of energy or 7.5 megawatt hours (MWh).
Target values according to the renewable and alternative energy development plan in 2021
- Wind energy target 134 KTOE 1,283 million units
- Solar Energy Target 224 KTOE 2,484 million units
- Hydroelectric power target 756 KTOE 5,604 million units
- Biomass energy Target 1,896 KTOE 14,008 million units
- Biogas Target 270 KTOE 1,050 million units
- Energy from waste Target 72 KTOE 518 million units
- New energy target 0.86 KTOE 10 million units
Total target 3,352.86 KTOE 24,956 million units
unit conversion of energy
1 kilocalorie (kcal) – 4.187 kilojoules (kj) – 3.968 BTU (BTU)
1 kilojoule (kj) – 0.329 kilocalories (kcal) – 0.948 BTU (BTU)
1 BTU (BTU) – 0.252 kilocalories (kcal) – 1.055 kilojoules (kj)
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) – 860 kilocalories (kcal) – 3,600 kilojoules (kj) /3,412 BTU (BTU)
1 tonne of oil equivalent (toe) – 10 million kilocalories (kcal) – 42 gigajoules (Gj) /40 million BTU
1 ton oil equivalent (toe) – 1.5 ton coal (bituminous, anthracite) – 3 ton coal (lignite)
1 ton water equivalent Crude (toe) – 12 megawatt-hours (MWh) – 7.3 barrels (bbl)